What is Mobbing?

What is Mobbing (Psychological Violence)?

The term "Mobbing" comes from the English word "Mob", and it means too much rudeness and illegality. The word is emerged from the Latin word "mobile vulgus".  Emotional Violence at workplace, causing pecuniary loss and intangible damages, has been an issue itself. Mobbing
 (Psychological violence at workplace), means psychological violence, pressure, blocking, harassment, disturbance or irritating. Turkish Language Institute, decided to use “Bezdiri” as the meaning in Turkish and defined it as “To mob, exclude, discredit someone by prevention of the work systematically, by causing him/her to be anxious at workplaces, schools and communities etc." . In our university, "psychological violence at workplace” is defined as "mobbing", which is commonly used internationally.

Mobbing is an emotional attack by abusing the power or a position formed as psychological violence, violence, harassment, contempt, threat etc. It starts with a disrespectful and harmful behavior, and aims to make the employee quit by implication and mockery in purpose of demolishing his/her reputation.  It is done intentionally to exclude someone from the workplace regardless of age, gender, race. The one who mobs is defined as"mobber", the one who is mobbed is named as "victim".
Individuals exposed to mobbing become unable to work depending on the level and impact of the damage. Relevant research has shown that the shortest duration of mobbing is 6 months, generally 15 months, but the average time that severe effects arise is between 29 to 46 months. Considering the mobbing in different kind of workplaces and the types of people facing, according to research, It is common in nonprofit organizations, primarily in the health and education sectors, and especially in universities where it is experienced much more common.

The History of Mobbing

The word ; Mobbing , was first identified in animals fight among themselves, then the bullying of children each other, which was used to describe the relationships. The research In workplaces in the 1950s and 1960s, has revealed that mobbing is not occurring only among children. Mobbing first appeared and became scientific in Dr. Heinz Leymann's report on "Safety and Health in workplace" in 1984. Mobbing has been existed since then but always ignored in the workplace and still a nightmare for many employees. To be exposed to this kind of behavior sometimes by insulting, humiliation and sometimes excessive workload above normal exposure, may cause both psychologically and physiologically harm of the employee.

How to recognize Mobbing?

It occurs by authority over employees, group psychology, community relationships and systematic pressure.  To define as "Systematic" , experts foresee a period of at least six months. Instant, stress-related problems are not meant to.  Any conflict or disagreement should not be considered psychological violence. In order to define the case as a psychological harassment, it needs to be a behavior occurred several times in a month, in a cycle, the frequency of the repetition, long-term continuation and formed as cruel treatment.

There are two sides because the there is communication in negative behavior and directed to one or more people. There is a clear power inequality between the mobber and the victim. Victim is the one who is always a loser. To be called as mobbing, at least, willfulness, continuity and regimentation are needed and for recognition of those presence it needs to be surveyed of the conflict, organizational environment and the period of violence.
The types of Mobbing
1. Vertical mobbing:  The psychological cases exerted by superiors on an employee. It includes attitudes and actions related to the abuse of power that superiors have aiming to exclude employees out of the workplace.
2. Horizontal mobbing: The colleagues at the same level as two colleagues with equal job status. For example; envy, gossip, conflicts, rivalries and personal antipathies among colleagues 

3. Down-Vertical mobbing: The mobbing of employee on the managers. It is not common. For example, not accepting the new manager, commitment to the old manager, jealousy etc.

The stages of Mobbing

- The first signs of conflict 
- Non-resolved Conflicts 
- The start of mobbing (mental and physical health is affected) 
- Aggravation of mobbing (performance deterioration) 
- Intensive Mobbing (rest, being late for work) 
- Continuation of intense mobbing (disease becomes more important than work) 
- Illness, resignation, removal, etc ...

The effect of Mobbing

One of the main problems of modern life brought into, the results of the psychological harassment and its impact is quiet wide. Individuals know, experience such kind of problem but cannot take a step forward in identification and resolution. Psychological harassment in the workplace begins with being the target of disrespectful and harmful behavior and then continues with the abusive actions of the mobber. In the next stage, the victim is defined as problematic, or is labeled as mentally ill and as a source of the problem. Sometimes, management and colleagues can also participate in mobbing besides the mobber. Generally, a hostile environment is created for reducing an individual's social reputation and the systematic suppression to make the victim quit the job. Psychological violence’s emotional and physical effects on individuals can be listed as; insomnia, nervous disorders, melancholy , concentration disorders , social isolation , self- humiliation , social exclusion , various psychosomatic disorders , depression, hopelessness and despair , irritability, anger , restlessness, and is a state of deep grief .

Mobbing harms man's professional integrity and sense of individuality, increases a person's self-directed  doubts , causes paranoia and confusion , the victim may lose self-confidence, isolate, experience restlessness, fear, shame, anger and anxiety feelings. Mobbing can cause crying, sleep disturbances, depression, high blood pressure, panic attacks, leading to a heart attack and can cause post-traumatic stress disorder.
If the victim reflects the problems on the family environment, it can cause domestic unrest and conflict may. Moreover, it may lead to domestic violence and divorce.
According to a survey, medical expenses of mobbing victims are higher than his/her salary.
Mobbing, along with psychological therapy, medication, doctor and hospital charges; reduction of labor productivity, increasing sickness period may lead to higher losses economically.
The loss of professional motivation 
Students, parents and staff working communication conflict 
Sense of exhaustion 
Not having the motivation to go to work 
Conflicting feelings like regret and ambition  
Desire to change the work and workplace
Work-related mistrust.

The cost of mobbing

Mobbing (Psychological Violence in the Workplace)'s direct burdensome cost is that the employees have to endure includes along the loss of a job and security along with the individual's mental and physical health. The indirect costs of this case, employers and society forced to endure, are the deterioration of product quality and low production , the institution / company's loss of prestige and itself a reduction in the number of customers. The production of employees who are psychologically disturbed will be much less than who is not. Labor losses due to sickness are caused huge losses in the country's economy.

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